CAKE group

A great number of differences between the north and the south caused the Civil War in the United States. Before the war actually occurred, however, the government made several attempts to resolve the sectional problems without creating a constitutional conflict. The Missouri Compromise, The Compromise of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850 tried to prevent a war in the United Sates.
The Missouri Compromise in 1820 attempted to resolve disputes over free and slave states in the United States. The issue of slavery had always been present in the United States, but real problems arose when the United States began adding new territories to the country. In 1818, the Missouri Territory had gained a fairly large population. The Missouri Territory was the same area of land as the previously called Louisiana Territory. It was renamed because Louisiana became a state in 1812. In 1820, Maine requested to become a state. Maine would be a free state, and would off-put the balance between the free and the slave states. Alabama made the number of slave and free states equal in 1819. Because Missouri was sure to be a slave state, the idea that Maine and Missouri should be brought into the Union at the same time seemed like a good idea. The new bill presented Maine as a free state and stated that the rest of the Louisiana Purchase territory would prohibit slavery, but Missouri could contain slaves. After being rejected by the House of Representatives, the bill was split up and treated as two separate legislations. The new bills kept Maine a free state and let Missouri allow slavery under its own constitution. It also banned slavery above 36-30. The compromise was considered to be authored mostly by Henry Clay. Clay was a prominent “war hawk”, person that supported war with Britain in 1812. Clay is most famous for his dealings with the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. He favored the freeing of slaves, but owned slaves himself.
The Missouri Compromise seemed to settle the rising heat between the North and the South, but differences still kept politicians on edge. The Compromise of 1833 tried to settle, once again, differences between the urban areas of the north and the rural areas of the south. The Compromise was set up by Henry Clay to help end the crisis in South Carolina. Issues emerged when the Tariff Act of 1828 was passed. The Tariff Act of 1828 was set up to help northern factories. Another tariff act was passed in 1832, and this angered southerners even more. South Carolina was particularly angry. They felt that the taxes weren’t benefiting them, and they claimed they were going to secede from the Union. With help from Vice-President John C. Calhoun, they claimed that states had the right to nullify laws passed by Congress. Calhoun was an advocate for state's rights. He wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest in a defense against the Tariff of 1828 and stated that if the act wasn't repealed that South Carolina would secede from the United States. President Andrew Jackson, however, enforced the tariffs. He believed that a state's power to nullify laws set up by Congress contradicted the Constitution. He, therefore, said he was going to send troops down to South Carolina and force the laws to be followed. The Compromise of 1833 came from Henry Clay. He proposed to gradually reduce the tariffs until 1842. President Jackson agreed to this, and it seemed that the crisis between the north and south had been averted once again.
Hostility grew between the North and the South as more territories were admitted into the United States. In 1848, the end of the Mexican War, Texas was added to the United States. Once again, the problem was slavery. Northerners favored the Wilmot Proviso proposal. This proposal was an addition to a bill already in Congress. It was drafted by David Wilmot, who said that none of the new territories gained from the Mexican War should be open to slavery. Congress, however, never passed this bill. The south was greatly against this idea. The south felt that it deserved equal representation in the Union, and it feared that fugitive slave laws would be ignored. Henry Clay came out of retirement to try to seek an agreement. He passed a compromise that admitted California as a free state, made a harsher fugitive slave law, allowed states in the future to come under “popular sovereignty”, and settled issues over Texas. The “popular sovereignty” part of the bill allowed the new state to determine if slavery would be allowed in its boundaries. The Fugitive Slave Act stated that any northerner that helped or didn’t report an escaped slave would be fined. The Compromise passed after Stephen A. Douglass, a senator from Illinois, proposed that the bill be broken up, so Congress could keep the parts that it liked and change the parts that needed revision.
Several compromises tried to amend the issue of slavery in the United States. Henry Clay put in years of effort to try to fix sectional issues. In the end, however, slavery could not be put aside, and the Civil War occurred.