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AP U.S. History at Southside H.S
Pages and Files
Ch. 6-9 multiplechoice
The Constitution and the New Republic
25. According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Supreme Court was to be
A. composed of nine members.
B. the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 154
26. The first secretary of the treasury under the new government of 1789 was
A. Alexander Hamilton.
B. Thomas Jefferson.
C. Robert Morris.
D. James Madison. --page: 154
27. In the 1790s, those that were labeled Republicans envisioned developing a nation that would
A. be highly commercial and urban.
B. be largely agricultural and rural.
C. a leading world power.
D. eventually control most of North America. --page: 155
28. Federalists controlled the new government under the Constitution for its first
A. four years.
B. eight years.
C. twelve years.
D. sixteen years. --page: 155
29. As president, George Washington
A. avoided personal involvement with the deliberations of Congress.
B. considered it his duty to resolve political controversies.
C. sought to dominate national politics.
D. grew concerned that the federal government was gaining too much power. --page: 155
30. The dominant figure of George Washington’s administration was
A. George Washington
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. Henry Knox
D. Alexander Hamilton --page: 155
31. As Treasury secretary, Alexander Hamilton
A. wanted to eliminate the national debt.
B. opposed the federal government’s assumption of state debts.
C. supported the creation of a national bank.
D. encouraged the federal government to focus on the needs of the independent farmer. --page: 155
32. Under Alexander Hamilton’s plan, a new national bank would
A. be capitalized largely by private investors.
B. facilitate the collection of taxes.
C. provide loans to private businesses.
D. all of the above --pages: 155–156
33. Alexander Hamilton recommended that the federal government raise revenue through
A. import tax and personal income tax.
B. sales tax and property tax.
C. excise tax and import tax.
D. excise tax and a sales tax. --page: 156
34. Alexander Hamilton’s funding plan
A. was eventually passed by Congress essentially as Hamilton had desired.
B. was supported by James Madison.
C. was rejected by Congress.
D. called for paying all bondholders only a fraction of the value of the bonds. --page: 156
35. Alexander Hamilton’s plan for the federal government to assume state debts was passed by Congress after a deal was made to
A. give a pay increase to government employees.
B. appoint key Jefferson allies to the Washington administration.
C. create two new states in the West.
D. locate the nation’s capital between Virginia and Maryland. --page: 156
36. Opponents of Alexander Hamilton’s proposed national bank argued
A. Congress had no authority to create a national bank.
B. a national bank would lead to currency inflation.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 157
37. The most sustained opposition to Alexander Hamilton’s economic program came from
C. urban wealthy.
D. small farmers. --page: 157
38. In the Constitution, political parties were
A. not mentioned.
B. described as dangerous.
D. viewed as temporary factions. --page: 157
39. The emergence of an alternative political organization to the Federalists was prompted by a
A. dispute over President Washington’s policies for westward expansion.
B. fear that the Federalists were attempting to end free elections.
C. belief that the power of the central government needed to be restrained.
D. a growing debate over the national bank. --page: 157
40. The two preeminent Republicans of the 1790s were
A. Alexander Hamilton and James Monroe.
B. John Adams and James Madison.
C. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
D. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. --page: 158
41. During the 1790s, regional support in the United States for Federalists was greatest in the
A. the rural Deep South.
B. the rural Far West.
C. the Northeast.
D. the Southwest. --page: 158
42. In America, the French Revolution was generally praised by
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 158
43. The story of the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 saw
A. the federal government conduct itself much as it did during Shays’s Rebellion.
B. violent clashes between urban merchants and American troops.
C. a briefly successful move by Pennsylvania to secede from the Union.
D. President Washington accompany thousands of troops into the field. --page: 158
44. In reference to Indians living in the United States, the Constitution
A. made no mention of Indian nations.
B. stated Indian tribes were entitled to direct representation in the federal government.
C. required the federal government to respect treaties negotiated under the Confederation.
D. declared Congress had no legal right to regulate commerce with Indian tribes. --pages: 159–160
45. Jay’s Treaty (1794)
A. avoided a likely war with England.
B. secured British compensation for recent attacks on American ships.
C. led to the withdrawal of British forces posted on the American frontier.
D. prompted England to send its first minister since the Revolution to the United States. --page: 160
46. Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) was negotiated between the United States and
A. Great Britain
D. the Netherlands. --page: 160
47. Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) gave the United States
A. the right to navigate the Mississippi River to its mouth.
B. the freedom to use the port at New Orleans.
C. a desired fixed northern boundary of Florida.
D. all of the above --page: 160
48. The election of 1796 saw
A. a Federalist president and a Republican vice-president take office.
B. the Republicans win the presidency for the first time.
C. the House of Representatives determine the presidential victor.
D. the Federalists reach their height of power and unity. --page: 161
49. The “XYZ Affair”
A. involved foreign interference in an American presidential election.
B. led to an undeclared war between the United States and France.
C. increased tensions between the United States and Great Britain.
D. was prompted by a feud between John Adams and Alexander Hamilton. --pages: 161–162
50. The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
A. gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism.
B. was aggressively used by the Adams administration to suppress public criticism.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 162
51. In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it was asserted that
A. states had the right to nullify federal laws.
B. the federal government had the right to void state laws.
C. the Supreme Court had no constitutional authority to invalidate federal laws.
D. the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution was unjust. --pages: 162–163
52. In the late 1790s, on the political scene,
A. the United States was deeply and bitterly divided.
B. the republican form of government had won over most skeptics.
C. the power of the Republicans was declining.
D. the United States had developed a clear two-party system. --page: 163
53. The presidential campaign in 1800
A. saw the Republicans win a decisive victory over the Federalists.
B. was notable for the sensational personal slandering of both candidates.
C. saw leading Federalists in Congress attempt to engineer the election of Arron Burr.
D. was decided by a newly elected Republican Congress. --page: 164
54. Who described to the election of 1800 as the “Revolution of 1800”?
A. Thomas Jefferson
B. Alexander Hamilton
C. John Adams
D. James Madison --page: 164
55. The Judiciary Act of 1801
A. was passed by the new Republican Congress.
B. increased the size of the Supreme Court by two seats.
C. was an attempt by Federalists to secure their hold on the courts.
D. resulted in the Federalists losing control of the judiciary. --page: 164
The Jeffersonian Era
1. In regards to education, early nineteenth-century Republicans favored
A. a nationwide system of free public schools for all male citizens.
B. federal government paying the costs of primary schools.
C. private schools as the primary institutions of learning.
D. the practice that only the children of elite families received an education. --page: 168
2. In the early nineteenth century, school education was largely the responsibility of
A. private institutions.
B. the states.
C. individual cities and towns.
D. the federal government. --page: 168
3. The writer Judith Sargent Murray argued that women
A. should have the same educational opportunities as men.
B. were equal to men in intellect and potential.
C. should have a role in society apart from their husbands.
D. all of the above --page: 168
4. Thomas Jefferson believed American Indians were primitive people
A. who had been greatly mistreated by white Americans.
B. might become civilized through exposure to white culture.
C. who should be completely separated from white society.
D. with no redemptive qualities. --page: 169
5. Around 1800, higher education in the United States
A. served about two percent of the white men in the country.
B. saw the number of colleges and universities grow substantially.
C. gave access to women, blacks, and Indians.
D. were increasingly becoming public institutions. --page: 169
6. The first American medical school was established at
B. William and Mary.
C. University of North Carolina.
D. University of Pennsylvania. --page: 170
7. In the study of medicine during the early-nineteenth century,
A. anatomy became the leading contributor to medical knowledge.
B. municipal leaders sought better public awareness of sanitation to reduce diseases.
C. most physicians spoke out against the practice of bleeding and purging.
D. most doctors received their training by working with an established physician. --page: 170
8. The expansion of the medical profession during the early nineteenth century resulted in a
A. broad increase in the number of hospitals.
B. decline in midwives.
C. rapid rise in the general health of the population.
D. significant gain in the general body of medical knowledge. --page: 170
9. Noah Webster thought every American schoolboy should be educated
A. in a skilled trade.
B. to appreciate European culture.
C. in community service.
D. as a nationalist. --page: 170
10. The writer Washington Irving is best remembered for his works on
A. Ichabod Crane and Rip Van Winkle.
B. the American Revolution.
C. George Washington.
D. Philadelphia society. --page: 171
11. The religious concept of Deism
A. emphasized the role of God in the world.
B. challenged many of the ideas that had emerged in the Enlightenment.
C. incorporated science and reason into religious faith.
D. all of the above --page: 171
12. Religious skepticism resulted in
A. the philosophy of “Unitarianism.”
B. a wave of revivalism.
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b --page: 171
13. The Second Great Awakening
A. was an effort by church establishments to revitalize their organizations.
B. was consistent with the ideas of the Enlightenment.
C. helped promote universalism and Unitarianism.
D. was confined to New England. --page: 171
14. The Second Great Awakening helped spread all of the denominations EXCEPT
A. the Baptists.
B. the Unitarians.
C. the Presbyterians.
D. the Methodists. --page: 171
15. The message of the Second Great Awakening
A. called for an active and fervent piety.
B. restored the traditional belief in predestination.
C. incorporated the belief of skeptical rationalism.
D. found its greatest number of converts among young men. --page: 172
16. The revivalism of the Great Awakening
A. was largely limited to white Americans.
B. pacified opponents of slavery.
C. encouraged racial unrest.
D. was rejected by the black American community. --page: 173
17. During the Second Great Awakening, the Indian revivalist Handsome Lake called for
A. the adoption by Indians tribes of white American culture.
B. an armed Indian rebellion against white American society.
C. the restoration of traditional Indian culture.
D. the return of lands taken from Indian tribes by the United States. --page: 173
18. The cotton gin was invented by
A. Robert Fulton.
B. Eli Whitney.
C. Samuel Slaten.
D. Albert Gallatin. --page: 174
19. The invention of the cotton gin in the late eighteenth century
A. allowed for the introduction of cotton in southern coastal states.
B. had a profound effect on the textile industry in New England.
C. reduced the total number of slaves in the American South.
D. led to a great increase in the production of long-staple cotton. --pages: 174–175
20. Eli Whitney is a major figure in American technology for introducing
A. the concept of interchangeable parts.
B. the first modern factory.
C. the steam engine.
D. the mechanized assembly line. --page: 175
21. In the early eighteenth century, the Americans Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston
A. invented the steam engine.
B. made significant advances in steam-powered navigation.
C. developed the nation’s first merchant marine.
D. brought the first steam engines from England to the United States. --pages: 175–176
22. The early nineteenth century in America is known as the “turnpike era” because
A. most towns and villages become connected by a network of inexpensive roads.
B. many roads were built for profit by private companies.
C. the federal government provided free land to road construction companies.
D. concrete was first developed as a long-life road surface. --pages: 177–178
23. In 1800, population data of the United States revealed
A. ten percent of the non-Indian population lived in towns of more than 8,000.
B. no American city had a population larger than 28,000.
C. New York was the most populous city in the country.
D. the nation remained overwhelmingly agrarian. --pages: 178–179
24. In the United States during the early nineteenth century, horse racing
A. was largely limited to rural areas of the country.
B. first became a spectator sport.
C. became a popular sport in most areas of the country.
D. was considered a form of gambling and was banned in most towns. --page: 179
25. The chief designer of the capital city of Washington was
A. Thomas Jefferson.
B. Robert Fulton.
C. Pierre L’Enfant.
D. Guy Dupont. --page: 179
26. In 1800, Washington D.C.
A. had grown in size equal to Philadelphia.
B. was little more than a simple village.
C. was widely recognized as a city built on a grand scale.
D. had yet to be occupied by the national government. --page: 180
27. In the early nineteenth-century, many members of Congress
A. had to live in tents when in Washington D.C.
B. considered their state legislatures to be more prestigious political bodies.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 180
28. As president, Thomas Jefferson
A. sought to convey the public image of a plain ordinary citizen.
B. believed in a passive presidency.
C. gave the White House its name.
D. tended to keep talented Federalists in office despite objections from Republicans. --pages: 180–181
29. In his first term, President Thomas Jefferson
A. helped establish a military academy at West Point.
B. increased the size of the army.
C. increased the size of the navy.
D. aggressively used the military to assert American interests abroad. --page: 181
30. During his first term, President Thomas Jefferson
A. sought to create a tax on personal income.
B. restricted the sale of government lands to western settlers.
C. saw a doubling of the national debt.
D. eliminated all internal taxes. --page: 181
31. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803)
A. stated that Congress had no authority to expand the power of the Supreme Court.
B. stated that the Supreme Court had the power to nullify an act of Congress.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 182
32. John Marshall was
A. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the time of Marbury v. Madison.
B. appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by Thomas Jefferson.
C. a Republican.
D. a former Vice-President of the United States. --page: 182
33. In 1802, President Thomas Jefferson believed that if France controlled New Orleans
A. the United States would be forced to build a new port somewhere else on the Gulf coast.
B. Great Britain might decide to declare war on the United States.
C. Americans would not be able to settle west of the Mississippi river.
D. the United States would run the risk of war with France. --page: 184
34. Napoleon decided to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the United States because
A. the French Army on the American continent had been decimated by disease.
B. he wanted to raise money for his armies in Europe.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --pages: 183–184
35. Under the treaty terms for the Louisiana Purchase
A. the United States agreed to make annual payments to France for twenty years.
B. the United States would gain exclusive access to the port of New Orleans.
C. residents living in Louisiana were to made citizens of France.
D. the land boundaries were not clearly defined. --page: 185
36. When Thomas Jefferson received the treaty for the Louisiana Purchase he
A. felt his government had been asked to pay too much for it.
B. questioned his constitutional authority to accept it.
C. assumed the French would not honor its terms.
D. insisted on numerous revisions before accepting it. --page: 185
37. The first state to be created from the Louisiana Purchase and admitted into the Union was
D. Iowa. --page: 185
38. The Lewis and Clark expedition
A. was first planned after the Louisiana Purchase was made.
B. was assisted by the guide, Sacajawea.
C. was led by two men who had little experience with Indians.
D. saw both leaders die before the expedition was complete. --page: 185
39. The explorations of Zebulon Pike
A. included Pike’s successful climb to the top of the peak which now bares his name.
B. ended with his death at the hands of Choctaw Indians.
C. convinced President Jefferson to form reservations for Indians.
D. convinced many farmers not to settle between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. --page: 185
40. In 1804, the Federalists known as the Essex Junto
A. was led by Alexander Hamilton.
B. feared the westward growth of the United States.
C. feared that the United States might be divided by secessionists.
D. attempted to interest Napoleon in reclaiming Louisiana. --pages: 186–187
41. The duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton was the result of
A. a business failure between them.
B. a dispute over a woman.
C. Hamilton’s election as Governor of New York.
D. Burr’s belief that Hamilton had slandered him. --page: 187
42. The story of the Aaron Burr “conspiracy”
A. exposed the weak authority of the federal government.
B. included Burr’s conviction for treason.
C. included Burr’s attempt to push Spain into war against the United States.
D. saw Burr lead an attack on New Orleans. --page: 187
43. During the Jefferson administration, the British claimed the right to stop American merchant ships and seize
A. vessels that had deserters on board from British ships.
B. naturalized Americans born on British soil.
C. any persons they chose.
D. all military cargo. --pages: 188–189
44. The Chesapeake-Leopard incident
A. led the United States to prohibit its ships from leaving for foreign ports.
B. saw the British sink an American merchant ship.
C. led the British government to end its practice of impressment.
D. began the War the 1812. --page:
45. The Embargo of 1807
A. was ineffective.
B. created a serious economic depression in the nation.
C. resulted in the Republican loss of control of Congress in 1808.
D. was quickly repealed. --page: 189
46. The Non-Intercourse Act reopened American trade with
A. Great Britain only.
B. France only.
C. Great Britain and France only.
D. all nations except Great Britain and France. --page: 190
47. By 1812, trade restrictions against American shipping had been removed by
A. England only.
B. France only.
C. both England and France.
D. neither England nor France. --page: 190
48. President Thomas Jefferson’s Indian policy included
A. an offer to become settled farmers and join white society.
B. an insistence that they give up claims to tribal lands in the Northwest.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 190
49. During William Henry Harrison’s governorship of the Indiana Territory
A. violence between the United States and Indian tribes declined.
B. he refused to sign new treaties with Indian tribes.
C. all Indian tribes were driven west of the Mississippi River.
D. he used threats and bribery as a means to acquire Indian lands. --page: 191
A. believed the only effective means to resist white settlers was Indian tribal unity.
B. encouraged Indian assimilation into the United States to save their lives.
C. was also known as “the Prophet.”
D. fought against William Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe. --page: 191
51. The desire by American southerners to acquire Florida
A. led to war between the United States and Spain in 1812.
B. was motivated by the number of runaway slaves who escaped there.
C. was intended to reduce the presence of the British in America.
D. was unfulfilled until the 1830s. --page: 192
52. In 1812, Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun could best be described as
D. war hawks. --pages: 192–193
53. The War of 1812 was the result of conflicts
A. in the American West.
B. on the high seas.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 193
54. Which statement about the War of 1812 is TRUE?
A. England was eager for war with the United States.
B. The United States entered the war with enthusiasm and optimism.
C. The initial American focus of the war was on controlling the Mississippi River.
D. The military struggle on the Great Lakes was a disaster for the United States. --page: 193
55. During the War of 1812, the United States achieved early military success
A. on the Atlantic Ocean.
B. in New England.
C. in the Carolinas.
D. on the Great Lakes. --page: 193
56. During the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames
A. saw Tecumseh killed while a brigadier general in the British army.
B. led to the long American occupation of Canada.
C. strengthened the resolve of the Indians in the Northwest.
D. saw British forces come from Canada to attack Detroit. --page: 193
57. At the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in 1814, Andrew Jackson
A. was seriously wounded.
B. viciously broke the resistance of the Creeks.
C. captured the city of New Orleans.
D. defeated the Spanish at Pensacola. --page: 194
58. In 1814, the British
A. took control of the Ohio Valley.
B. repulsed the United States from Florida.
C. seized Washington and set fire to the presidential mansion.
D. established naval supremacy on the Atlantic Ocean. --page: 194
59. Following the British bombardment of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key wrote
A. “Yankee Doodle.”
B. “The Star-Spangled Banner.”
C. “The Pledge of Allegiance.”
D. “Stars and Stripes Forever.” --page: 194
60. In the War of 1812, the Battle of New Orleans
A. took place weeks after the war had officially ended.
B. saw inexperienced British troops face battle-hardened American forces.
C. resulted in hundreds of American deaths.
D. saw the British lay siege to the city for nearly a month. --pages: 194–195
61. During the War of 1812, the Hartford Convention
A. was a gathering of strong supporters of the war.
B. saw its participants vote to secede from the United States.
C. was made irrelevant by the Battle of New Orleans.
D. sought to strengthen the political influence of the South and West. --page: 197
62. The Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812
A. began an improvement in relations between England and the United States.
B. was reluctantly negotiated by the British.
C. included the condition that the United States create an Indian buffer state in the Northwest.
D. put huge areas of the new lands under the control of the United States. --page: 197
63. The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 called for
A. the joint occupation of Oregon by France and the United States.
B. the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes by the British and the United States.
C. France to pull out of the fur trade in the Great Lakes region.
D. a general trade agreement between the United States and France. --page: 197
Varieties of American Nationalism
1. The experience of American banking during the War of 1812 revealed the need for
A. a second national bank.
B. more state banks.
C. a reduction in gold and silver reserves.
D. an increase in the number of bank notes in circulation. --page: 202
2. As a result of the War of 1812
A. the growth of American manufacturing was stimulated.
B. American banking was stabilized.
C. America’s internal transportation system proved its worthiness.
D. American shippers experienced a financial boom. --page: 202
3. Francis Cabot Lowell’s contribution to American textile mills included
A. the invention of the cotton spindle.
B. consolidating the processes of spinning and weaving in one factory.
C. dramatically expanding the textile industry in the South.
D. improving the cotton gin. --page: 202
4. After the War of 1812, it was clear that the United States needed an improved
A. trade policy with Europe.
B. system of tariffs.
C. system for selling public lands.
D. internal transportation system. --page: 202
5. By 1818, the United States’s internal road system
A. had been paid for without any federal funds.
B. consisted only of a small number of private turnpikes.
C. included highways that reached into Ohio and Pennsylvania.
D. formed a network that connected most large towns and cities. --pages: 202–203
6. By 1818, American steam-powered shipping
A. carried more cargo on the Mississippi than all other forms of river transport combined.
B. increased the transport of manufactured goods into the west.
C. stimulated agriculture in both the West and South.
D. all of the above --page: 203
7. On his last day in office, President James Madison influenced “internal improvements” by
A. supporting the idea of using federal funds to finance transportation construction.
B. vetoing a bill that would have used federal funds to construct roads and canals.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --pages: 203–204
8. Between 1800 and 1820, the population of the United States
A. nearly doubled.
B. reached five million.
C. saw its largest increases in southern states.
D. all of the above --page: 204
9. In the early nineteenth century, the westward movement of white Americans was encouraged by
A. exhausted agricultural lands in the East.
B. the spread of the plantation system in the South.
C. the federal government’s policy toward Indian tribes in the West.
D. all of the above --page: 205
10. In the early nineteenth century, life in the western territories was characterized by
A. frequent mobility of the population.
B. a surplus of labor.
C. the absence of community institutions.
D. generally declining land values. --page: 205
11. In the early nineteenth century, the Deep South
A. saw tobacco as its primary crop.
B. included a vast, productive prairie in Alabama and Mississippi.
C. was largely developed by wealthy planters.
D. was slow to organize into states. --page: 206
12. After Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, it
A. attempted to close its northern territories to the United States.
B. sought cooperative economic and military arrangements with England.
C. quickly opened its northern territories to trade with the United States.
D. began selling its northern territories to the United States. --page: 206
13. In the early nineteenth century, “mountain men”
A. very often married Indian and Mexican women.
B. had little impact on the character of the Far West society.
C. were the dominant segment of the population in the Far West.
D. frequently warred against Indian and Mexican peoples. --page: 207
14. In the early nineteenth century, the explorer Stephen Long
A. agreed with the findings and conclusions of Zebulon Pike.
B. labeled the Great Plains the “American breadbasket.”
C. was one of the most colorful of the “mountain men.”
D. discovered the source of the Red River. --page: 208
15. The “era of good feelings” following the War of 1812 reflected
A. declining violence in the West between the United States and Indian tribes.
B. the end of political divisions in the United States federal government.
C. rising nationalism and optimism in the United States.
D. the renewed good relations between the United States and the European continent. --page: 208
16. Who among the following was NOT a part of the “Virginia Dynasty”?
A. James Madison
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. John Adams
D. James Monroe --page: 208
17. Prior to becoming president, James Monroe had
A. served as secretary of state.
B. been vice president.
C. explored the western frontier.
D. fought in the War of 1812. --page: 208
18. Shortly after becoming president, James Monroe
A. acted to limit the future influence of Federalists.
B. called for an end to political parties.
C. undertook a goodwill tour of the country.
D. became the first president to leave the country while in office. --page: 209
19. During the administration of James Monroe
A. all cabinet positions were filled by New Englanders.
B. the Federalist Party ceased to exist.
C. Henry Clay became Secretary of War.
D. his vice-president was charged with corruption. --page: 209
20. What event prompted Spain to negotiate the sale of Florida to the United States?
A. The Seminole War
B. The Panic of 1819
C. Civil war in Spain
D. The Mexican war for independence against Spain --pages: 210–211
21. In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty dealt with the American purchase of
D. Illinois. --page: 211
22. One cause of the Panic of 1819 was
A. decreased foreign demand for American agricultural goods.
B. restrictive credit practices prior to 1819.
C. the announcement that year that dozens of new state banks were to be chartered.
D. new management practices within the Bank of the United States. --page: 211
23. Many westerners blamed the Panic of 1819 on
A. eastern industry.
B. the Bank of the United States.
C. President Monroe.
D. land speculators. --page: 211
24. The Missouri Compromise of 1819
A. extended slavery throughout the Louisiana Territory.
B. maintained the nation’s equal number of slave and free states.
C. was roundly criticized by nationalists in the North.
D. denied statehood for Missouri for two more years. --pages: 211–213
25. The Supreme Court ruling in Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) was a victory for
A. corporation contracts.
B. the Republican Party.
C. state government.
D. public education. --page: 213
26. In Cohens v. Virginia (1821), Chief Justice John Marshall affirmed the constitutionality of
A. Supreme Court review of Congressional laws.
B. state court review of Congressional laws.
C. state court review of state laws.
D. Supreme Court review of state court decisions. --page: 213
27. In McCullough v. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court confirmed the
A. right of the federal government to tax states.
B. right of states to tax the Bank of the United States.
C. “implied powers” of Congress.
D. right of states to prohibit the Bank of the United States. --page: 214
28. The Supreme Court ruling of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
A. strengthened the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
B. narrowed the federal government’s role in regulating the economy.
C. declared transportation monopolies unconstitutional.
D. reaffirmed the New York court’s ruling regarding interstate trade. --page: 215
29. The Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. McIntosh (1823)
A. individual Americans had the right to buy land from Indian tribes.
B. Indians had a basic right to their tribal lands.
C. the federal government had no right to take lands from tribes.
D. the laws of the United States invalidated all Indian rights. --page: 215
30. In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Marshall Court affirmed federal authority over
A. individual states.
B. all American Indian tribes.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 216
31. The policy expressed in the Monroe Doctrine was principally directed at
C. American Indians.
D. Asia. --page: 216
32. The Monroe Doctrine declared that
A. European powers should not engage in new colonization of the American continents.
B. the United States reserved the right to involve itself in European affairs.
C. Cuba should come under the control of the United States.
D. European powers should abandon all their interests in the Western Hemisphere. --page: 216
33. The writing of the Monroe Doctrine
A. had an immediate and dramatic effect on American policy.
B. was primarily based on the earlier writings of Thomas Jefferson.
C. was motivated by American interests in Hawaii.
D. was an important example of American nationalism. --page: 217
34. In the presidential election of 1824
A. Andrew Jackson received the most electoral votes and became president.
B. John Q. Adams received the second-most electoral votes and became president.
C. Henry Clay received the fourth-most electoral votes and became president.
D. none of the above --page: 218
35. The “corrupt bargain” was negotiated between
A. Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams.
B. William Crawford and John Quincy Adams.
C. Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson.
D. John C. Calhoun and Andrew Jackson. --page: 218
36. The “corrupt bargain” of 1824 involved
A. the sale of public land to supporters of the Monroe administration.
B. political payoffs and bribery involving the Treasury Department.
C. illegal contracts between the State Department and private corporations.
D. a political deal to determine the outcome of the presidential election. --page: 218
37. The presidential administration of John Quincy Adams was
A. plagued by financial corruption.
B. noted for its inability to effectively carry out its policies.
C. most successful in its tariff policies.
D. successful in domestic policies, but had little success in foreign policies. --page: 218
38. During the presidential campaign of 1828
A. Republicans were able to effectively unite.
B. President Adams was accused of adultery.
C. Andrew Jackson was labeled a murderer.
D. the major election issue was the Bank of the United States. --page: 219
39. Andrew Jackson’s presidential victory in 1828 was
A. extremely narrow.
B. decisive but sectional.
C. an overwhelming victory.
D. a result of the support he received from New England states. --page: 219
40. The election of 1828
A. was decided by the House of Representatives.
B. saw Andrew Jackson receive the largest majority in American political history.
C. saw Andrew Jackson sweep most of New England.
D. saw the emergence of a new two-party system. --page: 219
1. From what segment of society did Andrew Jackson draw much of his political support?
A. Southern plantation owners
C. Former Federalists
D. Farmers and laborers --page: 224
2. Which statement regarding the American electorate during the 1820s is TRUE?
A. The right to vote was expanded to include many more white males.
B. The right to vote was restricted to property owners.
C. Married white women had the right to vote but could not hold elected office.
D. Changes in voting rights occurred first in New England states and spread west. --page: 224
3. In 1840, efforts to expand voting rights in Rhode Island resulted in
A. new laws that actually further restricted voting rights.
B. federal troops occupying the state capital for two years.
C. an effort within the state to secede from the Union.
D. two governments claiming control of the state. --page: 224
4. By 1828, in all but one state, presidential electors were chosen by
A. state legislatures.
B. popular vote.
D. Congress. --page: 225
5. By the 1830s, political parties were generally regarded as
A. in the control of special interest factions.
B. unnecessary to the political process.
C. a dangerous threat to the democratic process.
D. a desired and essential part of the democratic process. --page: 226
6. In the years after the War of 1812, support for the idea of political parties was greatest in
B. New Jersey.
C. New York.
D. Rhode Island. --page: 226
7. In the 1830s, an argument in favor of political parties was the belief that
A. the parties would provide the training ground for candidates.
B. a permanent political opposition was useful to the democracy.
C. the present system of government had little effective organization.
D. inexperienced political candidates would be less likely to gain office. --page: 226
8. Today, the oldest political party in the United States is
D. Republican. --page: 226
9. According to Andrew Jackson’s theory of democracy
A. there should be one national political party.
B. all white male citizens should be treated equally.
C. all white Americans should eventually be given the vote.
D. slavery should not extend into the west. --page: 226
10. President Andrew Jackson sought to apply his democratic principles by first targeting
A. the wealthy New England aristocracy.
B. the southern planter class.
C. federal officeholders.
D. his Whig opponents. --page: 226
11. The “spoils system” refers to
A. making illegal payoffs to political supporters.
B. giving away land taken from Indians to white settlers.
C. the destruction of land by overly aggressive settlement.
D. giving out jobs as political rewards. --pages: 226–227
12. In 1832, supporters of President Jackson held a national convention in order to
A. make the nominating process more democratic.
B. bring more public attention to their candidate.
C. have greater control of the nominating process.
D. shore up Jackson’s shaky support among voters in the Northeast. --page: 227
13. As President, Andrew Jackson believed the power of the federal government
A. should be reduced.
B. was supreme over individual states.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 227
14. When John C. Calhoun put forth his doctrine of nullification he was
C. Secretary of State.
D. Vice-President. --page: 229
15. In the 1820s, John C. Calhoun proposed his doctrine of nullification
A. to reduce the political power of Andrew Jackson.
B. as an alternative to possible secession.
C. as a means to end the national bank.
D. to support trade tariffs. --page: 229
16. John C. Calhoun drew his doctrine of nullification ideas from the
A. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
B. United States Constitution.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 229
17. In his doctrine of nullification, John C. Calhoun argued
A. that states were the final authority on the constitutionality of federal laws.
B. all laws related to a state’s economic development should come from that state.
C. states, not the congress, should ratify amendments to the constitution.
D. there should not be a federal court system. --page: 229
18. What political ally had the closest ties and greatest influence with President Jackson?
A. Amos Kendall
B. Martin Van Buren
C. Issac Hill
D. Francis Blair --pages: 229–230
19. The political significance of Peggy Eaton on Andrew Jackson’s administration was
A. the presidential aspirations of John C. Calhoun were likely ended.
B. John Eaton’s ties with the administration were strengthened.
C. Martin Van Buren had a political falling out with President Jackson.
D. the political strength of President Jackson was weakened. --page: 230
20. In 1830, the Daniel Webster-Robert Hayne debate was begun by a political dispute over
A. the value of the two-party system.
B. the sale of public land.
D. trade with England. --page: 230
21. In 1830, Senator Robert Hayne sought to attract support from westerners in Congress for
A. South Carolina’s drive to lower the tariff.
B. the westward expansion of slavery.
C. the Democratic party.
D. Connecticut’s proposal to end land sales. --page: 230
22. In the 1830 Daniel Webster-Robert Hayne debate, Webster considered Hayne’s arguments to be an attack on
A. free states.
B. the nation’s tariff policies.
C. President Jackson’s leadership.
D. federal authority. --page: 230
23. In 1830, what political figure said, “Our Federal Union—It must be preserved”?
A. Andrew Jackson
B. Robert Hayne
C. John C. Calhoun
D. Daniel Webster --page: 230
24. In 1830, what political figure said, “The Union, next to our liberty most dear”?
A. Andrew Jackson
B. Robert Hayne
C. John C. Calhoun
D. Daniel Webster --page: 231
25. In 1833, the nullification crisis came to an end after President Andrew Jackson
A. authorized the use of military force to see the acts of Congress were obeyed.
B. raised the tariff.
C. threatened to arrest supporters of nullification.
D. agreed to give a larger share of federal authority to the states. --page: 231
26. The primary goal of the United States’ policy toward Indians in the early 1800s was to
A. spread the Christian faith among tribes.
B. protect Indians from attacks by white settlers.
C. assimilate Indian tribes into white society.
D. acquire the land occupied by Indian tribes. --page: 232
27. The Black Hawk War
A. constituted a major, although temporary, Indian victory.
B. occurred in New England and upstate New York.
C. was notable for its vicious behavior by the white American military.
D. was sparked by the kidnapping of the leader of the Fox Indians. --page: 232
28. The Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
A. that Georgia had no authority to remove the Cherokee tribes.
B. the Cherokee had no right to file a legal claim in United States’ courts.
C. the entire process of Indian removal was unconstitutional.
D. that the Cherokee tribes could only be removed if they were properly compensated. --page: 232
29. The “Trail of Tears” taken by the Cherokees led them to the area that later became
D. New Mexico. --pages: 232–233
30. In 1830, the first of the “Five Civilized Tribes” to be removed to the west was the
D. Choctaw. --page: 233
31. Of the “Five Civilized Tribes,” the tribe that best resisted the pressures of removal were the
D. Chickasaws --page: 233
32. As a result of the United States government’s Indian policy in the 1830s and 1840s
A. violence between white Americans and Indian tribes subsided.
B. nearly all American Indian societies were removed to west of the Mississippi.
C. new federal attempts were made to assimilate Indian tribes into white society.
D. the United States gained control of ten million acres of Indian lands. --page: 234
33. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson vetoed a federal subsidy to the Maysville Road because
A. he sought to demonstrate his presidential power at a time when it was being questioned.
B. the road was not a part of any system of interstate commerce.
C. the subsidy was to be paid for out of tariff revenue, which he opposed.
D. he thought the proposal might jeopardize his bid for reelection. --page: 235
34. In the 1820s, under Nicholas Biddle, the Bank of the United States
A. was financially sound and profitable.
B. exercised little influence on state banks.
C. had restricted credit to growing enterprises.
D. prohibited the existence of state banks. --page: 235
35. In the 1830s, the Bank of the United States was opposed by
A. “soft-money” advocates.
B. “hard-money” advocates.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 236
36. In the debate over the Bank of the United States, President Andrew Jackson supported the interests of
A. the “soft-money” advocates.
B. the “hard-money” advocates.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 236
37. In 1832, Henry Clay sought to use the debate over the Bank of the United States primarily to
A. politically embarrass President Jackson.
B. help his reelection to the Senate.
C. promote his “American System.”
D. boost his presidential candidacy. --page: 236
38. Which of the following statements regarding the Bank of the United States is FALSE?
A. The charter of the Bank was due to expire in 1836.
B. Nicholas Biddle had the support of Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.
C. The controversy over the Bank became the leading issue in the 1832 election.
D. President Jackson ordered the Bank closed before the expiration of its charter. --page: 236
39. President Andrew Jackson’s success in abolishing the Bank of the United States
A. caused serious political damage to his administration.
B. led the nation into a period of long economic decline.
C. left the nation with an unstable banking system for many years.
D. led him to lose the political support of Roger B. Taney. --page: 237
40. The Supreme Court ruling in Charles River Bridge Company v. Warren Bridge Company (1837)
A. outraged supporters of Andrew Jackson.
B. was a victory for federal authority.
C. continued the constitutional interpretation set forth by John Marshall.
D. reflected the Jacksonian ideas of democracy and economic opportunity. --page: 237
41. Jacksonian Democrats
A. praised President Jackson as “King Andrew I.”
B. faced little political opposition by the mid-1830s.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 238
42. In the 1830s, Democrats were more likely than Whigs to support
A. the chartering of banks and corporations.
B. territorial expansion.
C. established wealth.
D. federally supported internal improvements. --pages: 238–239
43. In the 1830s, the so-called Locofocos were
A. radical Democrats.
B. defenders of monopolies.
C. southern slaveholders.
D. western farmers. --page: 238
44. The political philosophy of Whigs
A. opposed industrialism as a source of concentrated wealth.
B. favored expanding the power of the federal government.
C. encouraged the rapid western expansion of the nation.
D. allied itself with the abolition movement. --page: 238
45. From the following groups, support for the Whigs was weakest among
A. wealthy southern planters.
B. substantial New England manufacturers.
C. small western farmers.
D. aristocratic Americans. --pages: 238–239
46. In the 1820s, the Whig support for the Anti-Mason Party demonstrated
A. the desire of the party to attract the largest possible number of voters.
B. the intention of the party to refrain from political mud-slinging.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B --page: 239
47. During the 1830s, evangelical Protestants tended to support
B. Irish immigrants.
D. German immigrants. --page: 239
48. Who among the following was NOT a leading Whig at some point during his political career?
A. Martin Van Buren
B. John C. Calhoun
C. Daniel Webster
D. Henry Clay --page: 239
49. During its two-decade history the Whig Party won the presidency
A. zero times.
B. one time.
C. two times.
D. three times. --page: 240
50. The Whig Party was least successful at
A. defining its political position.
B. attracting a loyal constituency of voters.
C. uniting behind a strong national leader.
D. competing against Democrats in local, state, and congressional races. --page: 240
51. In 1836, Martin Van Buren won the presidency because
A. he was more popular with the public than Andrew Jackson.
B. federal spending had supported an economic boom.
C. the political opposition offered multiple candidates.
D. land speculation had been reduced under President Andrew Jackson. --page: 240
52. In 1836, Congress passed a “distribution” act that required the federal government to
A. apply a higher tax to foreign bondholders.
B. disperse its surplus funds to the states.
C. reward loyal Democrats with government jobs.
D. make pension payments to veterans of the War of 1812. --page: 240
53. In 1836, President Andrew Jackson’s “specie circular”
A. resulted in a severe financial panic.
B. was defeated by Congress.
C. was of considerable political benefit to Martin Van Buren.
D. required foreigners doing business in the United States to pay their debts in hard currency. --page: 241
54. President Martin Van Buren’s “subtreasury” system
A. was a financial system to replace the Bank of the United States.
B. created a new national bank.
C. never became law.
D. quickly failed. --page: 241
55. The presidential election campaign of 1840 saw
A. Martin Van Buren drop out of the presidential race.
B. the first influence of the “penny press” in politics.
C. Henry Clay chosen as the Whig presidential candidate.
D. the emergence of the Republican party. --page: 242
56. In 1840, William Henry Harrison
A. was, at the time, the youngest man to win the Presidency.
B. was part of a wealthy, large land-owning, frontier elite.
C. died before he took office.
D. was a Republican. --page: 243
57. As president, John Tyler
A. was a Whig who had once been a Democrat.
B. favored the recharter of the Bank of the United States.
C. considered Andrew Jackson to be his political role model.
D. approved several internal improvement bills. --page: 244
58. In 1841, the story of the American ship the Creole saw the British government
A. support the rights of mutinous slaves on the ship.
B. seize the ship because it carried slaves.
C. briefly declare war on American shipping.
D. refuse to trade with American shipping companies that carried slaves. --page: 244
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