Ch 17 Multiple Choice Questions

1. In the late nineteenth century, industry in the United States
A. obtained the bulk of its raw materials from Central and South America.
B. faced a growing shortage of laborers.
C. saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
D. lacked adequate capital to expand the domestic market.
2. Who among the following did NOT make significant contributions to communication technology?
A. Cyrus Field
B. Charles F. Brush
C. Alexander Graham Bell
D. Guglielmo Marconi
3. Prior to the Civil War, the steel industry in the United States
A. saw little development.
B. emerged as an important supplier for railroad construction.
C. largely replaced the iron industry.
D. resulted in the construction of large ocean freighters.
4. The process of making steel developed by Henry Bessemer
A. included blowing air through molten iron.
B. involved adding ingredients to molten iron.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
5. The open-hearth process of making steel
A. was replaced by the Bessemer process.
B. was first done in the United States.
C. produced small quantities of high-grade steel.
D. made the production of large dimension pieces possible.
6. In the United States, the steel industry first emerged in
A. Pennsylvania and Ohio.
B. Vermont and Massachusetts.
C. Illinois and Indiana.
D. New Jersey and New York.
7. All of the following cities became important centers for steel production EXCEPT
A. Pittsburgh.
B. Chicago.
C. Atlanta.
D. Birmingham.
8. In the late nineteenth century, the transportation needs of the American steel industry directly contributed to the development of all of the following EXCEPT
A. the automobile company.
B. steam engine technology.
C. freighters on the Great Lakes.
D. the Pennsylvania Railroad.
9. The first significant oil production in the United States occurred in
A. Ohio.
B. Texas.
C. California.
D. Pennsylvania.
10. In the 1870s, the “internal combustion engine” was developed in
A. Europe.
B. the United States.
C. Asia.
D. Africa.
11. In 1917, automobile production in the United States
A. was the nation’s largest industry.
B. saw Henry Ford build the first practical gasoline-powered car.
C. saw five million cars on American roads.
D. was almost nonexistent.
12. Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first successful airplane flight in 1903
A. took place near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
B. used a battery-powered engine.
C. lasted just over one minute.
D. all of the above
13. In 1900, the emergence of research laboratories in American corporations
A. occurred as federal funding for research greatly expanded.
B. led to a diversification of research interests.
C. developed similar research goals as in Europe.
D. was deemed necessary as few American university laboratories existed.
13. In the early twentieth century, a principle goal of “Taylorism” was to
A. make industrial workers more independent in carrying out their jobs.
B. organize industrial production into many simple tasks.
C. encourage industrial workers to act creatively to solve production problems.
D. create a large labor force of highly skilled workers.
14. A key to Henry Ford’s success in mass production of automobiles was to
A. use welds instead of rivets to speed production.
B. reduce the size of his labor force.
C. use interchangeable parts.
D. train highly skilled workers.
15. In 1929, the base price of a Ford Model T was
A. $290.
B. $470.
C. $630.
D. $950.
16. In the late nineteenth century, the railroad industry in the United States
A. included the nation’s largest businesses.
B. saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations.
C. relied on government subsidies for its growth.
D. led to the nation’s first corporations.
17. During the late nineteenth century, the growth of large corporations was helped by
A. sales of company stock to the public.
B. “limited liability” laws.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
18. Who among the following was NOT significantly associated with the steel industry?
A. James J. Hill
B. Andrew Carnegie
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
D. Henry Clay Frick
19. The business structure of Carnegie Steel was a good example of
A. vertical integration.
B. horizontal integration.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B

20. The business structure of Standard Oil was a good example of
A. vertical integration.
B. horizontal integration.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
21. To John D. Rockefeller, the great “curse” of business in the late nineteenth century was
A. government regulation.
B. cutthroat competition.
C. the income tax.
D. the corporate tax.
22. In the American business community at the end of the nineteenth century
A. one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing.
B. most corporations had achieved stability through “pool” arrangements.
C. federal reforms of corporations had ended the most predatory business practices.
D. most states had made it illegal for one corporation to buy another one.
23. In the late nineteenth century, most American business millionaires
A. began their careers from positions of wealth.
B. came from financially humble origins.
C. were living examples of “self-made men.”
D. had made their fortune in the railroad industry.
24. The social theory of Social Darwinism
A. argued the new industrial economy was limiting the potential for individual wealth.
B. contended that ruthless corruption may be necessary in the attainment of wealth.
C. was created by Charles Darwin to explain industrial economies.
D. promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
25. In the late nineteenth century, Social Darwinists argued that people who failed economically in the United States did so because
A. they had not received a college education.
B. racism and other prejudices held them back.
C. they had poor individual character.
D. business wealth was concentrated into the hands of a few.
26. In the late nineteenth century, the first and most important promoter of Social Darwinism was
A. Herbert Spencer.
B. Horatio Alger.
C. Russell Conwell.
D. Jacob Riis.
27. According to the ideas expressed by Andrew Carnegie in his Gospel of Wealth,
A. successful businessmen had every right to live as they pleased.
B. only pious Americans would prosper.
C. it was the “Christian duty” of every American become wealthy.
D. the rich had great responsibilities to society.
28. In his books, Horatio Alger
A. offered true accounts of poor Americans who had become wealthy.
B. took issue critical with the ideas of Social Darwinism.
C. emphasized the value of personal character in business.
D. criticized child labor in American industry.
29. The late nineteenth century sociologist Lester Frank Ward
A. believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society.
B. believed that government intervention in society would be harmful.
C. sought to apply Darwinian laws to human society.
D. argued that people could do little to alter the economic stratification of society.

30. The late nineteenth century, Daniel De Leon
A. created the ideas of laissez-faire.
B. founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States.
C. argued that large corporations were ultimately of benefit to American workers.
D. led the American Federation of Labor.
31. In the late nineteenth century, the social writer Henry George argued in favor of
A. taxing only the richest Americans.
B. a single land tax to replace all other taxes.
C. government efforts to increase land values.
D. abolishing all taxes.
32. Edward Bellamy’s 1888 book, Looking Backward
A. described America as being destroyed in the future by concentrated wealth.
B. promoted the virtues of economic competition.
C. imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust.
D. accepted the necessity of class divisions in a capitalist economy.
33. In the late nineteenth century, due to the growth of industrial capitalism, American workers
A. saw a rise in their standard of living.
B. experienced a loss in their control over their own work.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
34. During the 1870s and 1880s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from
A. Italy and the Slavic countries.
B. Great Britain and northern Europe.
C. Poland, Hungary and Russia.
D. Japan and China.
35. Until its repeal in 1885, the Labor Contract Law
A. discouraged immigration from non-European countries.
B. prevented the formation of labor unions.
C. put many new immigrants in debt to American businessmen.
D. was an attempt to reform American business practices.
36. By 1900, the average yearly income of American workers
A. was about $600.
B. allowed most workers to maintain a reasonably comfortable standard of level of living.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
37. In 1900, in regards to the work conditions in American factories,
A. workers generally controlled the pace of production.
B. laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week.
C. job security for industrial workers had increased since 1865.
D. while safety conditions were poor, mechanization reduced the overall rate of accidents.
38. During the late nineteenth century, child labor in the United States
A. increased significantly since 1865.
B. was unregulated by laws in most states.
C. saw more children working in factories than in agriculture.
D. all of the above
39. The Molly Maguires were a militant
A. labor union in the coal industry.
B. anti-immigration organization.
C. woman suffrage organization.
D. anarchist group.

40. The great railroad strike of 1877
A. began in the West and spread East.
B. saw the federal government refuse to intervene.
C. was launched in response to a wage cut.
D. saw organized labor gain its first major victory in the United States.
41. The Knights of Labor
A. was primarily a trade union.
B. did not allow women to join.
C. began as a secret fraternal organization.
D. focused its efforts on improving wages and reducing hours.
42. The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were divided by their positions on
A. immediate versus long-term objectives.
B. separate craft unions versus one big union.
C. modern capitalism.
D. all of the above
43. Samuel Gompers was the leader of the
A. American Federation of Labor.
B. Molly Maguires.
C. Knights of Labor.
D. Congress of Industrial Organization.
44. The Haymarket Square riot of 1886
A. saw public outrage over the police firing into a crowd of workers.
B. resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists.
C. took place in Indianapolis.
D. resulted in a strike at the McCormick Harvester Company.
45. During the late nineteenth century, anarchists in the United States
A. were relatively peaceful.
B. were linked with violence in the mind of the public.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
46. In what industry did the Homestead strike of 1892 occur?
A. steel
B. railroad
C. meatpacking
D. coal
47. Which of the following events did NOT occur during the Homestead Strike of 1892?
A. Henry Frick shut down the plant in an attempt to destroy the Amalgamated union.
B. The entire Pennsylvania National Guard was ordered to protect strikebreakers.
C. Hundred of guards hired by Homestead were defeated in a deadly battle with strikers.
D. The Amalgamated trade union won the strike.
48. The Pullman strike of 1894 began when George Pullman, owner of the company,
A. ordered rail workers to move into company-owned housing.
B. referred to workers as his “children.”
C. cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy.
D. refused to implement an eight-hour work day.
49. The Pullman strike of 1894
A. saw the president of the United States order federal troops to break the strike.
B. was ultimately successful for the strikers.
C. had little effect on rail transportation throughout the nation.
D. ended when George Pullman dropped his demand that workers live in company housing.

50. Eugene Debs played a leading role in what labor event?
A. Homestead strike
B. Pullman strike
C. Haymarket Square riot
D. all of the above
51. In the late nineteenth century, organized labor failed to make great gains for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A. tensions between ethnic and racial groups divided the work force.
B. labor unions faced powerful and wealthy corporations.
C. state and federal laws to protect the rights of workers did not exist.
D. major labor organizations represented only a small percentage of the industrial work force.

Ch 18 Multiple Choice Questions
1. he 1920 census of the United States revealed that
A. the western frontier had ended.
B. a majority of Americans lived in “urban” areas.
C. for the first time since 1790, American women outnumbered men.
D. the majority of the nation’s population had arrived as immigrants since 1880.
2. In the late nineteenth century, the population increase in urban areas of the United States
A. increased 700 percent in the fifty years after the Civil War.
B. experienced massive growth even where there was little immigration.
C. rose as the number of children born into urban families doubled between 1870 and 1900.
D. soared as the rates of infant mortality and disease significantly declined.
3. The largest number of immigrants to the United States in the late nineteenth century came from
A. southern and eastern Europe.
B. Mexico and central America.
C. Great Britain and Germany.
D. Asia.
4. In the late nineteenth century, immigrants to urban areas in the United States
A. were generally better educated then immigrants who arrived a generation before.
B. took up semi-skilled craft jobs.
C. avoided ports like Ellis Island for fear they would be denied entry.
D. generally lacked the capital to buy land.
5. By 1890, the percentage of the populations of Chicago, New York, and Detroit that were made up of immigrants was approximately
A. 20 percent.
B. 50 percent.
C. 60 percent.
D. 80 percent.
6. In the late nineteenth century, most immigrants to the United States
A. were already experienced as urban-dwelling, industrial workers.
B. found the transition to their new country to be fairly easy.
C. formed close-knit ethnic communities within the cities.
D. totally cut their links to their native countries.
7. In the late nineteenth century, compared to other immigrant ethnic groups, Jews
A. advanced rapidly economically.
B. placed a high value on education.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B

8. Compared with the first generation, second generation immigrants were more likely to
A. hold on to their old ethnic habits.
B. lose faith in the United States due to the hardships they experienced.
C. break from their traditional culture.
D. resist external social pressures to assimilate.
9. In the late nineteenth century, the assimilation of immigrants was encouraged by
A. the sale of American products.
B. public education.
C. church leaders.
D. all of the above
10. The primary goal of the American Protective Association was to
A. require immigrants to sign loyalty oaths to the United States government.
B. limit immigration to those who already had relatives living in the United States.
C. give “native” Americans preference over immigrants in employment opportunities.
D. stop immigrants from entering the United States.
11. In 1894, the Immigration Restriction League
A. sought a ban on all immigration to the United States for fifteen years.
B. proposed screening immigrants to allow only the “desirable” ones to enter.
C. sought a ban on immigrants from Asia, but not Europe.
D. called for the establishment of a tax on all immigrants.
12. In 1882, the first group of immigrants to be excluded from the United States on the basis of their nationality were
A. Chinese.
B. Japanese.
C. Hispanics.
D. Slavics.
13. One significant innovation of urban America in the late nineteenth century were
A. city fire fighting companies.
B. public parks.
C. paved roads.
D. public hospitals.
14. The principle force behind the creation of great public buildings in the late nineteenth century was/were
A. wealthy residents.
B. community service organizations.
C. state government.
D. federal government.
15. The “city beautiful” movement in the United States was inspired, in part, by
A. the economic depression of 1893.
B. the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
16. In the late nineteenth century, suburbs on the edges of American cities were largely populated by
A. poor people.
B. the working class.
C. the moderately well-to-do people.
D. people from all income backgrounds.
17. In 1894, the population density of Manhattan in New York was
A. far greater than the most crowded European cities.
B. equal to the density of Paris.
C. significantly less than most major European cities.
D. greater than in all major American cities except Boston.

18. Tenement buildings in urban America were
A. first constructed in Chicago in the 1880s.
B. intended to be occupied as single-family dwellings.
C. initially praised as an improvement in housing for the poor.
D. subsidized by city governments.
19. In the 1890s, Jacob Riis
A. favored stopping immigration as a way to improve urban American cities.
B. crusaded to expose political corruption in major American cities.
C. documented the stories of wealthy Americans who came from humble origins.
D. reported on the living conditions of the urban poor to encourage improvements.
20. By 1900, modes of mass transportation in American cities included
A. elevated railroads.
B. subways.
C. electric trolley cars.
D. all of the above
21. In 1884, the first “modern” skyscraper built in the United States
A. had no elevators.
B. was located in Boston.
C. was constructed with steel girders.
D. was built entirely of brick.
22. In the late nineteenth century, the leading cause of death in large American cities resulted from
A. fire.
B. food poisoning.
C. crime.
D. disease.
23. In the early twentieth century, efforts to improve environmental problems in American cities
A. were nonexistent.
B. focused on the wealthy and ignored the urban poor.
C. included a new federal environmental regulatory agency.
D. led many cities to ban horses from their streets.
24. In the late nineteenth century, efforts to reduce poverty in America
A. saw the Salvation Army focus on establishing shelters for the homeless.
B. saw charitable organizations try to limit aid to those deemed “deserving poor.”
C. included federally-funded studies attempting to identify the causes of poverty.
D. generally were led by reformers who had grown up in impoverished communities.
25. In the late nineteenth century, crime in large American urban centers
A. led many city governments to create professional public police departments.
B. included murder rates that were higher than would occur in the 1980s and 1990s.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
26. Theodore Dreiser’s 1900 novel, Sister Carrie dealt with the urban troubles of
A. immigrant families.
B. single women.
C. American families.
D. reformers.
27. In the late nineteenth century, political “machines” in cities owed their existence to
A. the rapid growth of urban America.
B. the influx of millions of immigrants.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B

28. In the late nineteenth century, urban political bosses did all of the following EXCEPT
A. giving out patronage.
B. win votes for his political organization.
C. providing material assistance to the poor.
D. reducing the costs of city services.
29. In the late-nineteenth century, New York’s Tammany Hall political machine
A. saw its most famous boss, William M. Tweed, sent to prison.
B. was one of the few machines that did not engage in graft and corruption.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
30. In the last decades of the nineteenth century, incomes in the United States
A. rose for almost all Americans.
B. declined for most unskilled workers.
C. remained the same for most Americans.
D. increased at roughly the same rate for all ethnic groups.
31. During the late nineteenth century, all of the following innovations occurred in consumer goods EXCEPT
A. the emergence of ready-made clothing.
B. the creation of credit card companies.
C. the ability to artificially refrigerate foods.
D. the opening of large department stores.
32. In the 1870s, the largest mail-order catalog in the United States was offered by
A. Richard Sears.
B. Montgomery Ward.
C. James Penny.
D. Joseph Speigel.
33. In the 1890s, Florence Kelley and the National Consumers League sought to
A. encourage immigrants to become greater consumers.
B. improve the safety and quality of consumer products.
C. protect family businesses from the competition of corporate retailers.
D. improve wages and working conditions of manufacturers and retailers.
34. At the end of the nineteenth century, most Americans viewed leisure time
A. as being desirable.
B. on a par with laziness.
C. as something not attainable for the average person.
D. as reserved for the wealthy.
35. In the late nineteenth century, leisure activities tended to be divided by
A. gender.
B. class.
C. race.
D. all of the above
36. The nineteenth century game of “rounders” became the modern sport of
A. basketball.
B. baseball.
C. golf.
D. football.
37. In 1869, Princeton and Rutgers played the first intercollegiate game in America of
A. baseball.
B. boxing.
C. football.
D. basketball.

38. In the nineteenth century, vaudeville theater
A. consisted of a variety of stage acts.
B. only employed white performers.
C. had been created in the United States.
D. all of the above
39. At the turn of the twentieth century, motion pictures
A. had been invented by D. W. Griffith.
B. were the first true mass entertainment medium.
C. operated under strict morality codes.
D. all of the above
40. Which of the following statements regarding Coney Island is FALSE?
A. The park stood as an example of the democratic principles of the nation.
B. Many visitors relaxed their conventions of Victorian social behavior.
C. The park developed a reputation for wholesome, family attractions.
D. The park experienced phenomenal popularity until after World War I.
41. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the growth of newspapers
A. resulted in most large cities being serviced by one dominant paper.
B. led to a significant decline in the telegraph industry.
C. was largely due to national population growth.
D. saw newspaper circulation increase much more rapidly than the general population.
42. Which statement regarding telephone service during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is FALSE?
A. The invention of signal “repeaters” increased the range of telephone service.
B. In its first years, telephone operators were all men.
C. Early telephones had to be directly wired to each other.
D. Early telephone service was almost entirely commercial.
43. Which American writer would be LEAST associated with the trend toward social realism in literature in the late nineteenth century?
A. Mark Twain
B. Upton Sinclair
C. Frank Norris
D. Stephen Crane
44. The American artistic movement known as the “Ashcan School”
A. portrayed an idealized image of rural life.
B. was strongly influenced by Old World masters.
C. included the painter Edward Hopper.
D. was most identified with the work of John Singer Sargent.
45. Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution met initial resistance from
A. theologians.
B. scientists.
C. educators.
D. all of the above
46. According to the philosophy of pragmatism, society should be guided by
A. scientific inquiry.
B. inherited ideals.
C. democratic tradition.
D. moral principles.
47. Which American thinker is LEAST associated with study using scientific methods?
A. Henry James
B. William Graham Sumner
C. Charles Darwin
D. John Dewey
48. Which statement about education in the late nineteenth century is FALSE?
A. It was a period of rapid expansion for public schools.
B. By 1900, most states required compulsory school attendance.
C. Funding for public education was highest in rural areas.
D. Southern blacks had far less access to education than southern whites.
49. In the late nineteenth century, American universities
A. significantly grew in number due to the Morrill Land Grant.
B. had a strong commitment to practical knowledge.
C. both A and B.
D. neither A nor B
50. By 1900, all of the following statements regarding American medicine were true EXCEPT
A. vaccines for typhoid and dysentery had been introduced.
B. synthetic medicines such as aspirin were being produced.
C. the germ theory of disease was now widely accepted.
D. American physicians and surgeons were generally regarded as being among the world’s best.
51. During the late nineteenth century, college education for American women
A. did not exist.
B. had expanded significantly.
C. offered no coeducational opportunities.
D. allowed women to be schooled only by male faculty.

Ch 19 Multiple Choice Questions
1. In the late nineteenth century, the most striking feature of the American party system was its
A. ideological divisions.
B. general activism.
C. lack of corruption.
D. remarkable stability.
2. In American politics during the late nineteenth century
A. Democrats most often won presidency.
B. Republicans usually held a majority in the Senate.
C. Republicans usually held a majority in the House.
D. most southern states voted Republican.
3. An examination of American voters in the late nineteenth century reveals
A. voter turnout for both presidential and nonpresidential elections was very high.
B. there was greater voter interest for local elections than for national elections.
C. in the South, blacks were barred from voting, while almost all white males could vote.
D. voters did not strongly identify with either the Republican or Democratic Party.
4. The high degree of party loyalty in the late nineteenth century is explained primarily by
A. the contrasting ideological positions each party took on major issues.
B. a voter’s occupation.
C. a voter’s regional background.
D. a voter’s ethnic background.
5. In the late nineteenth century, Democrats tended to attract the greater numbers of
A. Catholics.
B. citizens of old American stock.
C. the middle class.
D. Protestants.
6. In the late nineteenth century, a voter’s party identification was usually a reflection of
A. economic status.
B. cultural background.
C. age.
D. occupation.
7. Throughout the late nineteenth century, the federal government
A. developed a prominent role in international relations.
B. shrank in size of employees and budget expenditures.
C. had no meaningful responsibilities.
D. was relatively inactive.
8. In the late nineteenth century, as veterans of the Civil War retired,
A. the federal government created a pension system for all retired Americans.
B. they were paid pensions by individual states, but not the federal government.
C. the federal government gave pensions to both Union and Confederate veterans.
D. a majority of the black and white male population in the North received federal pensions.
9. The political battles between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds constituted a fight
A. within the Democratic Party.
B. that ultimately redefined national political practices.
C. between traditionalists and reformers.
D. that revolved around the temperance movement.
10. James A. Garfield
A. favored reform of the civil service system.
B. was elected president the same year the Democrats carried the Senate and House.
C. was assassinated by an unsuccessful office seeker.
D. all of the above
11. Chester A. Arthur
A. supported the Pendleton Act as part of civil service reform.
B. upset reformers by supporting the political “spoils system.”
C. quickly replaced most of James Garfield’s appointees.
D. was a political novice when he assumed the presidency.
12. In the election of 1884, “Mugwumps” were
A. civil servants.
B. supporters of James G. Blaine.
C. unhappy Republicans who threatened to vote for the Democrats.
D. conservatives who wanted to limit civil service reform.
13. As president, Grover Cleveland
A. accused his political enemies of supporting “rum, Romanism, and rebellion.”
B. was reluctant to use the veto authority.
C. supported high tariffs.
D. was a fiscal conservative.
14. The election of 1888
A. involved clear economic differences between the major parties.
B. was one of the few elections during this era to escape charges of corruption.
C. produced a clear mandate from the voters for political reform.
D. was decided by the congress.
15. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
A. was strongly opposed by congressional Republicans.
B. signified that the era of trusts was ending.
C. was used by the federal government against labor unions.
D. was strengthened by the courts over the next decade.
16. In the late nineteenth century, the issue of primary interest to the Republican Party was
A. restricting immigration.
B. reducing taxation.
C. a prohibition on alcohol.
D. supporting high tariffs.

17. As a result of the McKinley Tariff of 1890
A. Republicans suffered significant political losses that year.
B. William McKinley became a party leader in Congress.
C. the Democratic Party decided to support raising the tariff.
D. Democrats lost the presidency in 1892.
18. In 1892, President Grover Cleveland
A. grew more active in social reform.
B. followed policies similar to those of his first term.
C. faced a Republican-controlled Senate and Congress.
D. changed his position on tariffs.
19. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
A. put in place a series of regulations for railroad companies.
B. had little practical effect for decades.
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B
20. In the late nineteenth century, the Granger Laws supported the interests of
A. industrial labor.
B. farmers.
C. capitalists.
D. southerners.
21. What statement regarding the national Grange movement is FALSE?
A. At their peak, Grange supporters controlled the legislatures of most Midwest states.
B. It attempted to teach new scientific farming techniques to its members.
C. It sought to regulate the power and practices of railroads and warehouses.
D. It was greatly strengthened by the end of the economic depression in the late 1870s.
22. Compared to the Grange movement, The Farmers’ Alliances
A. were more national in scale.
B. were created to replace Grange associations.
C. had more effective and better managed cooperatives.
D. sought a closer working relationship with banks.
23. The election of 1892
A. saw the debut of the People’s Party.
B. exposed the declining political weakness of farmers.
C. saw the Republicans sweep into dominant power.
D. saw few populist-backed candidates get elected.
24. In the 1890s, Populism appealed to
A. the unemployed urban poor.
B. unskilled industrial workers.
C. small-scale farmers.
D. all of the above
25. In 1892, the People’s Party called for
A. government subsidies of water for agricultural use.
B. the federal government to purchase surplus crops.
C. a flat income tax for all rural businesses.
D. a government network of crop warehouses.
26. In the late nineteenth century, American Populism
A. embraced the widely held laissez-faire attitudes of the time.
B. called for a return to a preindustrial American society.
C. favored the direct election of United States senators.
D. called for the abolishment of all banks.

27. The Panic of 1893
A. grew out of a political scandal in the Cleveland administration.
B. triggered the nation’s most severe depression up to that point.
C. began with a drought in the Midwest.
D. was blamed largely on Populist politics.
28. The economic decline that followed the Panic of 1893 demonstrated
A. the degree to which the American economy had become interconnected.
B. the need for a national stock market.
C. the need for the enforcement of the Sherman Antitrust Act.
D. the decline in importance of railroads over the previous decade.
29. In 1894, Jacob Coxey and his supporters
A. demanded that Congress establish a program of unemployment insurance.
B. called for a public works program for the unemployed.
C. organized a march on Washington in plans to overthrow the government.
D. were arrested by police with many later deported as anarchists.
30. To many middle-class Americans, the major labor upheavals of the late nineteenth century
A. were evidence that the inequalities of capitalism needed to be addressed.
B. drew little interest outside of large urban cities.
C. were clear indications of the excessive power of monopolies.
D. were dangerous signs of social instability.
31. In 1873, the Congressional law that officially discontinued silver coinage
A. was passed to benefit international trade merchants.
B. was passed over the strong objections of farmers.
C. became known to critics as the “Crime of `73.”
D. was hotly debated at the time.
32. In the 1890s, farmers favored the federal government’s coinage of silver because
A. it would result in an inflation of currency.
B. they considered paper money to be worthless.
C. it would allow them to carry more debt.
D. they believed it would result in lower prices.
33. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 called for the federal government to
A. coin silver.
B. expand the nation’s currency supply.
C. purchase silver.
D. abandon the gold standard.
34. In the 1890s, President Grover Cleveland faced the severe economic problem of
A. too much money in circulation.
B. soaring inflation.
C. collapsing world markets for American goods.
D. declining gold reserves.
35. As the Republican Party approached the 1896 election, they were
A. deeply divided over their candidate.
B. confident of victory.
C. agreed that unemployment would be the major issue.
D. all of the above
36. In 1896, the Democratic political platform
A. adopted several, but not all, major Populist issues.
B. refused to accept any major Populist demands.
C. was thoroughly conservative and anti-Populist.
D. brought unity among the party delegates.

37. The “Cross of Gold” speech was given in 1896 by
A. William McKinley.
B. Grover Cleveland.
C. Mark Hanna.
D. William Jennings Bryan.
38. The “Cross of Gold” speech appealed primarily to
A. immigrants.
B. Catholics.
C. farmers.
D. Republicans.
39. In the campaign of 1896, President William McKinley
A. alienated Protestants by reaching out to Catholics.
B. campaigned largely from his house.
C. was significantly outspent by his opponent.
D. ignored the desires of urban industrial workers.
40. The 1896 election results saw
A. the Populist movement suffer a crippling defeat.
B. William McKinley carry the rural vote.
C. William Jennings Bryan earn his greatest support in the industrial Northeast.
D. the Republicans carry the South for the first time since the Civil War.
41. In 1896, the major issue of William McKinley’s administration was
A. the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
B. the restoration of “bimetallism.”
C. the desire for higher tariffs.
D. labor unrest.
42. American agriculture during the 1890s benefited from
A. foreign crop failures.
B. new discoveries of silver.
C. a new silver agreement with Great Britain and France.
D. new federal crop subsidies.